Education & Learning

All About Polymorphism in Python

Object-oriented programming languages like Python have several architectural pillars. These are common among all OOP languages, including Python. What are these pillars? The features of OOP are inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism.

Among all, polymorphism is a significant aspect of Python programming. Polymorphism makes your code more efficient. So, developers closely follow Python polymorphism whenever writing programs for various purposes. You should understand polymorphism if you learn about the programming language and plan to become a professional Python developer.

What’s the concept of polymorphism in Python? How do programmers benefit from polymorphism? You might have these questions and several more in your mind regarding Python polymorphism.

Don’t worry; we will help you clear all your doubts in this article! It outlines all necessary details about polymorphism in Python with absolute beginners in mind. Finally, you will become fully prepared for all Python interviews in the end. Indeed, it’s a detailed resource for you.

So, are you ready to discuss polymorphism in Python? Let’s dive in if it’s a yes!

Meaning of classes, objects, inheritance, and constructors

You can build a knee-deep understanding of polymorphism in Python’s context once you know the ins and outs of classes and objects in an OOP environment.

Class: A class is a blueprint or prototype defined by the user and used to create objects. It denotes the collection of attributes or methods shared by all Objects of the same type.

Objects: It represents real-life entities and is a fundamental unit of Object-Oriented Programming. A typical Java program creates many Objects, which interact via invoking methods.

Constructors: Constructors are commonly employed to create new objects. Constructors are responsible for initializing (assigning values) the class’s data members when an Object of the Class is formed. The function Object() { [native code] } is called the __init__() method in Python, and it is invoked whenever an object is created.

Inheritance: Inheritance lets us declare classes having the same properties and methods as another class. That is, these attributes are inherited.

  • The parent class, often termed the base class, is the one from which we derive the inherited class.
  • A child class, also termed as a derived class, is a class that inherits from another class.

Meaning of polymorphism in Python

Polymorphism is a Python term that refers to a generic function name that we can use for various purposes. Object-oriented programming in Python makes extensive use of this concept. Polymorphism is used in Python for multiple reasons, including Operator and Method overloading, and Method overriding, like other programming languages like Java and C++. Overloading and overriding are two methods for achieving this polymorphism.

How to use polymorphism in Python?

Like other programming languages, Python has three ways to use polymorphism.

  • Operator overloading

Overloading an operator refers to giving them more than their established operational meaning. The operator +, for example, can be used to add two integers, join two strings, and merge two lists. Since the ‘+’ operator is overloaded by the int and str classes, overloading is possible. It is known as Operator Overloading, and it occurs when the same built-in operator or Method behaves differently for objects of various Classes.

  • Method overloading

You may construct a method in Python that you can invoke in a variety of ways. As a result, you can have a Method with zero, one, or more parameters. Depending on the method specification, we can use zero, one, or more arguments to call it.

You can specify the number of parameters for a single method or function. Method overloading is the process of invoking the same Methods several times.

  • Method overriding

A subclass or child class in any object-oriented programming language can provide a customized deployment of a method already delivered by one of its superclasses or parent classes. A method in a subclass is said to override a method in its superclass if the subclass method has the same name, parameters, signature, and return type (or sub-type) as the superclass method.

Benefits of Python polymorphism

Now, let’s look at the advantages that polymorphism offers.

  • It aids in the reprocessing of program codes by the developer. It means that previously written codes and classes can be reused as needed after being verified and run, saving a programmer’s time. As a result, these codes and related Classes may apply to various additional approaches.
  • We can use only one variable to hold several data types: Int, Float, Double, Long, etc. It makes it straightforward for users to find and implement certain variables.
  • Debugging the code is simple.
  • It aids in the preservation and reduction of coupling between distinct functionalities.
  • Allows programmers to design programs that use only one technique for multiple executions depending on the situation. This Method can execute inversely for different inputs after agreeing on the interface type.
  • It has one of the most significant advantages: it allows the programming code to extend itself to use the previous program, saving time and work for the creators.
  • This Method is the foundation of OOPs languages, and you may also use it to program various types of large-scale code execution.
  • This Polymorphism capability allows programmers to write codes more quickly and creatively.
  • Polymorphism benefits include reducing coupling and maximizing reusability to build understandable software. Although the performance of polymorphism may be affected in a few circumstances, this does not mean that it is not necessary. It aids in code maintenance and is simple to read when stored in a structured format.

These polymorphism benefits make it so popular in Python. You can leverage polymorphism in your code to access these advantages and make the program more efficient than ever.


Woohoo! You’ve mastered polymorphism in Python. You can implement the concept in real-life programs and answer all interview questions confidently. Also, it is a frequently-asked topic in Python interviews. So, you can firmly grasp the subject for better performance during screening tests. This post is your go-to resource whenever you need revisiting polymorphism in Python or preparing for a job interview. Happy learning!

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